DNA and its use in prognostics, diagnostics and therapy

11. 11. 2015

sprava: Peter Celec, Barbora Izrael Vlková, Roman Gardlík, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Július HodosyWednesday with a molecular biomedicine introduced to the public an explanation why there is no need to fear, but rather to enjoy, what we can do with DNA nowadays - from reading, throught targeted changes, to creating a new DNA. The event, as one of the events within the Science and Technology Week in Slovakia 2015, took place in the premises of the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information of SR, Lamačská cesta 8/A, Bratislava on 11th November 2015. The organizer of event is SCSTI SR, it reports directly to the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of SR and the main partner of TVT 2015 is a company Slovenské elektrárne a. s., a member of ENEL.

How intensive various aspects of medicine change thanks to new knowledge and innovations in molecular biology and genetics, presented researchers from the Institute of Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava and they introduced themselves in several short lectures.

prezentácia Peter CelecDoc. MUDr. Ing. RNDr. Peter Celec, DrSc., MPH  presented the lecture about the genetic prognosis.

All people, who are interested in this subject, know that genetics plays an important role at the formation of the disease, but what specific genes and their variants are important for different diseases, we find out just now. How this can be examine and why we still do not know more than we know, how it is used what we know about the genetic causes of diseases for screening and prognosis, for all this questions gave us an answer Peter Celec.

In this context, he expressed his opinion how preventive examinations could look like and he explained why genetic prognosis is limited nowadays. He answered these and other important questions to participants of event. He did not forget to say in his lecture, what molecular biomedicine is and he introduced personalities from history who contributed to the discovery of DNA the most. Peter Celec is not only a masterbrain in his field of study, but he also knows to explain this interesting theme by attractive way. Nowadays, we know to read out from DNA, which genes are responsible for certain diseases and what should be used also in clinical practice.

RNDr. Barbora Izrael Vlková, PhD. presented the theme diagnostics.

She explained many questions which related to this topic. For example, DNA is in the nucleus of the cells, but when the cells die, either by force or voluntarily, DNA also comes out, for example into the blood plasma, urine or saliva. There were presented answers to many questions, for example: By what are foetuses and tumours similar? What is a liquid biopsy? Why many pregnant women will not have to go to amniocentesis? What is preeclampsia and what does it have common with autoimmune diseases such as lupus? Next, we learned whether our immune system knows that the DNA in our plasma is ours or foreign. The participants of event learned all this and much more.

prezentácia autora Romana GardlíkaMUDr. RNDr. Roman Gardlík, PhD. explained the gene therapy and its use.

Recently, we hear from the various media, that the DNA in various forms can be used to treat diseases. Short time ago, the first such therapy was approved for routine use. But how we can get DNA into cells and if the gene therapy causes cancer, we got the right answer from the author of lecture.

Further, he also presented the ethics of genetic modification of human cells and explained on which types of diseases can be use the gene therapy. What is tobaktochondria and whether patients with an irritation of bowels will be treated by genetically modified yoghurts, what faecal transplantation is, if we will be able to make our own recombinant probiotics for a few euro, all this in a short time limit was able to explain in his lecture Roman Gardík. Maybe the questions of an author of lecture were interesting: "Are the modification of human cells ethical? What is the risk of abuse? Does it represent a threat for the future generations? Is it ethical to prohibit such research?"

RNDr. Ľubomíra Tóthová, PhD. has explained the theme phage therapy.

In the mid-20th century, scientists believed that bacterial infections due to antibiotic are no longer a problem. But many bacteria gain resistance to antibiotics, and fighting against them is becoming increasingly difficult. What we can do about it and who is responsible for this explained author of the lecture. Next, she dealed with the questions: what phages are and where we can find them, why they had been used in Poland, Russia and Georgia more than 100 years ago and after that their use had been stopped and if we will use them against infection of urinary tract or even in the treatment of obesity.

fágová terapiaMolecular Biomedicine in clinical practice. The lecture with this title had been presented at the end of the event. This topic had been successfully acquitted by MUDr. Mgr. Július Hodosy, PhD., MPH. Although molecular biomedicine in recent years has opened new opportunities for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, these findings are brought slowly into clinical practice and in Slovakia are often not spreaded at all. We learned during this lecture about the cause of slow application in practice and about an evidence-based medicine.

Furthermore, we learned why patients have to wait more than 20 years while an effective treatment gets into routine use, and author of the lecture explained us how patients can help by establishing molecular biomedicine in practice. How universities respond to changes and how continuous education is secured after high school, and also what the situation looks like in Slovakia, why it is so and what can be done with that, we learned from this presentation. An event Wednesday with a molecular biomedicine was divided into two separate parts. In the morning, experts lectured to secondary students. The afternoon part was intended to the general public.

The Institute of Molecular Biomedicine is a research institute of the Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava. It is a common workplace to Center for Molecular Medicine of SAS and a common workplace to Biomedox spol. s r. o. and Geneton s. r. o. based in Bratislava, Sasinkova 4. They have created more than 100 specialized publications. Workers, in addition to their scientific activity, also teach several subjects at the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Comenius University, especially they teach PhD students. The Institute cooperates with several top foreign institutions, including RWTH Aachen, Karolinska Institute and Harvard. Head of Department is doc. MUDr. Ing. RNDr. Peter Celec, DrSc., MPH.

Prepared by: M. Izakovičová (NCP S&T, a department of SCSTI SR)

Photo: A. Oravcová (NCP S&T, a department of SCSTI SR)

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Translated by: LŠ

Biological Sciences, Medical and Clinical Sciences , Biotechnologies in the Health Sector, Popularization of Science and Technology

Medical Sciences